William Slater's CYBR 510

William Slater's CYBR 510
CYBR 510 - Physical, Operations, and Personnel Security

Sunday, December 11, 2011

Post 006 - CYBR 510

Week 2 Written Assignment

Week 2 Written Assignments

Your written assignment this week is to write a paper addressing both of the following:

• Discuss how the Rand Report (p. 32-33 of Security Operations Management textbook) has changed the security field and the law enforcement field.

• How has the modern protective industry grown in recent history? How does it compare with law enforcement today?

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A Brief Analysis of the 1972 Kakalik and Wildhorn Rand Report and Its Impacts

This brief paper will present an analysis of a Rand Report titled Private Police in the United States: Findings and Recommendations, by James S. Kakalik and Sorrel Wildhorn, and its impacts on the security industry in the United States. This report was commissioned by the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA). The chief objectives of this report were to accurately describe state of the situation that existed with private security police who were not employed by government entities, and to provide recommendations and a basis for the improvement of policies that would result in improvements in the quality of private security police (McCrie, 2007).

This Rand Report was seen as a scathing indictment of the state of private police in the U.S. The crux of the report can be seen in this passage:

“The typical security guard is an aging white male, poorly educated, usually untrained, and very poorly paid. Depending on where in the country he works, what type of employer he works for (contract guard agency, in-house firm, or government), and similar factors, he averages between 40 and 55 years of age, has had little education beyond the ninth grade, and has had few years of experience in private security… He often receives few fringe benefits; at best, fringe benefits may amount to 10 percent of wages. But since the turnover rate is high in contract agencies, many employees never work the 6 months or 1 year required to become eligible for certain of these benefits.” (sic) (McCrie, 2007).

Other factors that the Rand Report identified that were leading to the overall poor quality of these private police officers were: weak pre-employment screening, high-turnover in the industry, low hourly compensation, and a lack of meaningful licensing standards (McCrie, 2007). One could also surmise from this list that lack of adequate training was also a factor.

How the 1971 Rand Report Has Changed the Security Field and the Law Enforcement Field

Nearly 40 years later, the 1972 Rand Report by Kakalik and Wild Horn is still being researched and referenced to understand the linkage between substandard security employees and the factors that could contribute to the overall poor quality of security processionals. It is clear example of the worst that can and will happen when there is lack of policy and professional standards with which to create a staff of quality private police.

In 1976, the LEAA created the National Advisory Committee on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals. The purpose of this group was to undertake a number of detailed analytical reviews of issues related to criminal justice. One group that was created from this initiative was the Private Security Task Force (PSTF). The PSTF was comprised of law enforcement officials, corporate security directors, and executives from a major security services company. It released a report that was regarded as a response follow-on report and it identified 80 goals and standards for private security. While this report was not created to impact public policy that would influence governments and law enforcement professional standards, it was used as a good set of guidelines, though many have yet to be enacted (McCrie, 2007).

How Has the Modern Protective Industry Grown in Recent History?

Events since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks have underscored the importance of security as a priority in the eyes of the public and the eyes of our government leaders. The use of private security police is evident everywhere in large cities. Nearly every large public building in downtown Chicago has uniformed private security forces, and these are complemented by the use of other controls such as sign-in rosters, closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras with digital video recorders (DVR), pass card access, etc. When private police security guards serve in such capacities, they serve as a reminder that there is a human security element that can instantly react to security incidents, though to be sure, crime still occurs.

On October 24, 2006, my own dermatologist, Dr. David Cornbleet, was brutally murdered in his downtown Chicago office located in a high-rise office building on Michigan Avenue and evidence points to a disgruntled patient (Lohr, 2011). Ironically, the suspect was seen on CCTV and DVR entering and leavning the building within the window of the time of the crime, and there were private security guards on duty in the lobby of the building. Obviously, the killer exploited a vulnerability where the doctor was alone in his office and there were no witnesses to the crime. Nevertheless, despite the presence of private security guards, the crime was not deterred, and it was the CCTV and DVR that led to the best evidence of the identity of the primary suspect.

How Does It Compare with Law Enforcement Today?

Since the publication in 1972, and the publication the follow-on PSTF report in 1976, of the there have been several organizations created to promote professionalism, standards, and guidelines among private security police personnel. One such organization is the International Foundation for Protection Officers (IFPO, 2011).

Compared to the time in which the Rand Report was published the pay and standards for hiring are hiring are higher. But since nearly all uniformed police professionals who hired to the police forces of county, city, state, and federal levels all undergo much more intensive training, usually at some kind of academy, and they all have better pay, benefits, and usually pensions, usually the only comparisons is that both public security professionals and private security professionals are in security uniforms and carry a badge. The similarities usually end there.

Ultimately, the existence and effectiveness of private security personnel and their corresponding lower rate of compensation is directly related to the degree at which an organization or group of organizations is willing to expend resources to reduce risk. If the organization will not expend adequate resources to reduce risk, the probably of a risk event occurrence will increase as a result.


The Rand Report was clearly a turning point specifically in the security industry for private police, as well as the security industry as a whole. Since its publication in 1972, security professionals have researched and referenced this report as a started point. It is safe to say that while the security industry for private police did not immediately start to improve, the fact that this report was published by the Rand Corporation in 1972 as a factual document, and as a tool to promote policies for improvement, it achieved its objectives. It is also safe to say that because it was well researched and it came from the Rand Corporation, the quality, credibility, and relevance of this report to the security industry all explain why it is still being referenced and quoted almost 40years after its initial publication.


McCrie, R. D. (2007). Security Operations Management, second edition. Burlington, MA: Elsevier.

Gunter, W. and Kidwell, J. (2004). Law Enforcement and Private Security Liaison: Partnerships for Cooperation. An article published at the International Foundation of Protection Officers. Retrieved from the web at http://www.ifpo.org/articlebank/lawprivateliaison.html on December 11, 2011.

IFPO. (2011). Benefits of Membership in the International Foundation of Protection Officers. Retrieved from the web at http://www.ifpo.org/membership.html on December 11, 2011.

Kakalik, J. S. and Wildhorn, S. (1972). Private Police in the United States: Findings and Recommendations. A study commissioned by the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration and published by Rand Corporation. Retrieved from the web at http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reports/2006/R869.pdf on December 11, 2011.

Lohr, D. (2011). Dr. David Cornbleet: Lost at the Hands of a Patient. A web article published at the Investigation Discovery website. Retrieved from the web at http://investigation.discovery.com/investigation/internet-cases/cornbleet/david-cornbleet.html on December 11, 2011.

Wildhorn, S. (1975). Issues in Private Security. A special report published by the Rand Corporation. Retrieved from the web at http://www.rand.org/pubs/papers/2008/P5422.pdf on December 11, 2011.

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William Favre Slater, III
MBA, M.S., PMP, CISSP, SSCP, CISA, ISO 27002, ISO 20000, ITIL v3, Cloud Computing Foundation
Project Manager / Program Manager
CYBR 510 Blog: http://cybr510.blogspot.com
Chicago, IL
United States of America

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